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Literary analysis of ‘The Going’ by Thomas Hardy Essay

‘The Going’ is a sonnet grieving the passing and loss of Hardy’s spouse Emma. The topics of anguish, love and lament are...

Thursday, September 3, 2020

Literary analysis of ‘The Going’ by Thomas Hardy Essay

‘The Going’ is a sonnet grieving the passing and loss of Hardy’s spouse Emma. The topics of anguish, love and lament are echoes all through the sonnet anyway it is uncommon and fascinating to take note of that it appears that Hardy is accusing Emma for leaving him and over-romanticizing the time they spent together. The title ‘The Going’ gives the air that Emma’s passing was an excellent kind of flight. A peruser with no information on Hardy’s life would maybe feel that Hardy adored and took a lot of care of his significant other for an amazing duration and her flight was ‘grand’ in that manner, anyway this isn't the situation. The conditions Emma kicked the bucket in delineated an unforgiving spouse who didn't go to his wife’s deathbed when the house keeper let him know Emma was sick †Hardy’s offensive sonnet makes the conditions are exceptionally amusing. In the subsequent refrain, Hardy additionally alludes to Emma’s demise as the ‘great going’, which is by and by giving that Emma’s passing was amazing; like a Queen leaving. It is conceivable that by lauding and lifting up Emma’s demise, Hardy is attempting to reassure himself about the conditions she kicked the bucket in †by composing over the circumstance he might be attempting to change the narrative of what occurred for the peruser so as to cause it to appear like he isn't the one to fault. Expanding on the possibility that Hardy needs to move the fault from himself, Hardy all through the sonnet poses inquiries as explanations as opposed to as genuine inquiries. For instance, he says ‘ Why do you make me go out/And think for a breath it is you I see†¦! ‘ †Hardy has not finished his sentence with a question mark but instead he has finished with a shout mark, recommending he as a general rule wouldn't like to ask Emma these inquiries, rather he needs to reveal to her how he needs the story to be. By utilizing ‘you’ in the entirety of his inquiries, the air that Hardy is the casualty in this circumstance as opposed to Emma. This enhances upon the thought referenced over that Hardy might be needing to compose over the circumstance so as to cause it to appear that he isn't the one to fault. A feeling of self-importance and vainglory is evaded from his longing to move the accuse away from him †this may cause the speaker to appear to be unlikeable. There is an exotic tone in the sonnet which attempts to romanticize the disposition of the sonnet and recommend the cheerful past the couple had in the start of their relationship and the glad life they could have had yet didn’t. Tough asks Emma for what valid reason she didn't ‘lip me the mildest call’ †this is a reference to physical closeness and could be a kiss or to murmuring ‘sweet-nothings’. From that recommendation, it would appear as though Hardy was consistently hopeful for such closeness anyway this was not the situation as the couple were not genuinely personal for a large portion of their relationship. There are echoes of their seeking days in their childhood in the fourth verse where Hardy portrays a more youthful Emma in complimenting and adoring terms as the ‘swan-necked one’ who might ‘muse and eye (him)’. The possibility of Emma ‘eyeing’ Hardy proposes a modest and energetic Emma sneaking looks at Hardy which inspires sympathy in the perusers heart for Emma as well as the joined couple of Emma and Hardy during their romance. This solitary adds to the pitiful sentiment of Emma’s passing †however now by relating their seeking days Hardy has told the peruser of his pain as well as spread this sadness to the peruser. Similar sounding word usage additionally adds to the lively feel to the sonnet, expanding on the point above. The day is portrayed as ‘darkening dankness’ and the rear entryways as ‘bending boughs’ †this breathes life into the settings and shows how rich their relationship could have been, subsequently intensifying the feeling of disappointment over Emma’s ‘going’. The similar sounding word usage could likewise recommend that Hardy is endeavoring to over-romanticize the circumstance to such a degree, that he is attempting to persuade himself that their relationship was upbeat. Another translation could that while this sonnet is a dismal love sonnet, Hardy’s utilization of perky similar sounding word usage might be exhibiting that Hardy may not be as pitiful as he is describing as all through the sonnet in such a case that in fact he was awful misery blasted by her misfortune, he would not have had enough levelheadedness to form the sonnet with such artistic gadgets which make the sonnet sound all the more streaming. Utilizing a gadget, for example, similar sounding word usage is purposeful and hence Hardy’s utilization of similar sounding word usage shows he had enough ability to utilize this method. The last refrain in the sonnet has extraordinary importance to the sonnet and its significance. Strong uses short sentences and caesuras to show how cruelly Emma’s passing occurred and how brutally their relationship finished. ‘Well, well! All’s past change/Unchangeable. It must go. ‘ shows how he appears to be hesitant to acknowledge that Emma is presently dead as the short sentences make it sound like he is gradually attempting to cause himself to acknowledge this reality. Sharp caesuras in this verse likewise cause it to feel like attempting to persuade himself Emma is gone is exceptionally agonizing. To close, Hardy uses abstract gadgets, for example, similar sounding word usage and sexy symbolism to give an arousing feel to this sonnet, anyway the basic tone and importance of this sonnet is a tragic and greivious one as featured by Hardy’s utilization of fault and structure. Short sentences and a conflicting ryhming plan exhibit this dismal state of mind.

Wednesday, August 26, 2020

Emerging Technology and Its Implications Essay

With the expanding consideration being concurred to environmental change in the prevailing press nowadays, there is likewise an expanded consideration being given to mechanical answers for help with battling the issue. While such arrangements are commendable in that they go well beyond the typical calls for reusing and the acquisition of ‘green’ items †which have been demonstrated to be of paltry effect upon the enormous scope imperfections in frameworks of creation and utilization that portray mechanical innovation †not every one of them ought to grasped uncritically. It is just by exposing each proposition to spare the planet to examination that we can decide a genuinely manageable future. One of the thoughts that has been accepting expanding cash in hippie conversations are enormous scope planetary ‘technofixes’ on the whole alluded to as geo-building or planetary designing. These remember mirrors for space intended to reflect overabundance measure of daylight, counterfeit trees intended to drain carbon out of the environment, and oversaw arrival of sulfates into the climate, and many, numerous other epic intends to control the biological texture of our planet.  Here’s the rub: The term geo designing is a somewhat flawed one, as it suggests that it has a similar sort of exact or numerical conviction as building when it doesn’t. It smoothens over a considerable lot of the knocks and bends that describe our issues and request imaginative arrangements. As a result, planetary salvation becomes as simple as building a passage into a slope or a scaffold over a waterway, when in reality our aggregate comprehension of the fundamental effects is far not exactly the geo designing advertisers would have us accept. One should call it ‘planetary experimentation.’ While the potential advantages proposed are of an epic greatness, this extent would likewise apply to the expected results. Take for instance a proposition to suck carbon dioxide into the planet’s seas by seeding it with iron stores. Many, including the Scientific Steering Committee of the Surface Ocean-Lower Atmosphere Study (SOLAS) and the World Conservation Union (IUCN) have seen this can possibly intensify sea fermentation and lead to cataclysmic outcomes for marine environment: â€Å"The seas are intricate, dynamic, unusual and right now defenseless †¦ We need  [to] manufacture their flexibility, not subvert it [not] handy solutions to this worldwide issue that may [cause definitely more long haul harm] than good.† (Gjerde) Also, the verifiable reputation of enormous scope mediation for the sake of natural concern has never been generally excellent regardless, attests Alex Steffen of Worldchanging: â€Å"From damming streams to battling woodland flames to killing vermin †¦ endeavors have †¦ looking back [been] so overwhelm with unintended results as to turn out to be out and out fiascos, frequently †¦ more regrettable than the first issues †¦. [And the] cost of mistakes [increase] with the greatness of the endeavored solution.† (Steffen) Geo building is basically a ‘silver bullet’ arrangement, one which decreases the political will to innovatively retrofit our current ways of life in such a way as to be practical and ecologically stable, while as yet having the option to appreciate the extravagances of post-modern headways. Fundamentally, the apparatuses for a greener world are as of now here and their drawbacks are irrelevant notwithstanding overpowering advantages both ecological and cultural. Regardless, conversation over geo designing only gives an interruption from summoning the political will important to impact genuine change. It gives environmental change cynics an avocation for political aloofness to reviewing our current lifestyle: Why choose better structured urban communities, eco-friendly vehicles and significant infrastructural reevaluating when we can only ‘erase’ the impacts of our hazardous frameworks? One’s position on geo building isn't an issue of whether you are a techno idealistic or a total Luddite. In any case, there is a significant qualification to be made between innovation that is straightforward in plan, cooperative in nature, and libertarian in application just as simple to cure and innovation that is brought together, costly and hard to invert. Between â€Å"Star Wars† â€â a rocket safeguard framework burdened with so much defilement that never really accommodate country security †and atomic force †a guarantee of ceaseless wellspring of vitality whose disappointments unleashed enormous results †we should respect geo designing with doubt: perilous until demonstrated safe. Geo building is superfluous. â€Å"Fixing† the planet in such a way is choosing not to see the manner in which we live: it shows an absence of development and political mental fortitude that is important to the splendid green future.  Works Cited Stiles, Lori. â€Å"Space Sunshade Might Be Feasible In Global Warming Emergency.† NASA Earth Observatory. 3 November 2006. Recovered July 8, 2008 from: http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Newsroom/MediaAlerts/2006/2006110323537.html Bentley, Molly. â€Å"Guns and coverings to safeguard climate.† BBC News. 2 March 2006. Recovered July 8, 2008 from: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hello/science/nature/4762720.stm Gjerde, Kristina. â€Å"Hold back the geo-building tide.† BBC News. 11 December 2007. Recovered July 8, 2008 from: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hey/science/nature/7133619.stm Romm, Joseph. â€Å"Rule three of counterbalances: No geo-engineering.† Grist Magazine Online. 27 July 2007. Recovered July 8, 2008 from:â http://gristmill.grist.org/story/2007/7/27/144848/844

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Interoperability and Middleware Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Interoperability and Middleware - Research Paper Example This was planned for improving the administration offered by the ICT division. After this turn of events, the ICT part turned out to be progressively far reaching and requested more research and headways on broadcast communications and figuring system adaptability (Lerner, 2002). Today interoperability guidelines are applied in ICT world to improve successful correspondence similarity, trade of information and administrations. The smooth collaboration between at least two segments of the working programming for correspondence similarity, administrations and information trade can be named as between operatibility. Interoperability is a need in ICT in light of the fact that it is an apparatus that expands the availability of PCs by means of the web and offers an answer for operational expenses. Besides, its product has been end up being of value given heterogeneity is kept up, for example, on frameworks written in various language programming; running on various equipment programs and working framework; utilizing various information portrayal; executing not at all like syntactic or semantics translations; and utilizing diverse control stages (Puder, Ro?mer and Pilhofer, 2006) For interoperability heterogeneity to be acknowledged there must be a middleware programming bundle. Today, there are numerous media transmission and calculation enterprises that offer center product items. The business assembled middleware item basically builds up a connector that makes interoperability framework to arrange for use. Center product alludes to application programming that fills the need of a change layer or trade of assets between two arranged partners. It likewise blends and joins two arranged partners to speak with one another either running on the equivalent or various stages. Middleware programming applications are isolated into two significant classes, application the executives and asset the executives. In application the board conjures explicit administrations that per form given undertakings for them. This application the board is additionally separated into other two classifications, the higher and the lower, that is subject to the degree of administration deliberation the middleware offers. The lower application known as between application the executives correspondence middleware works with remote technique brings as a rule while the higher application middleware absolutely abstracts the system by subbing methodology calls with direct assistance calls. The second middleware class, asset the executives, goes about as asset the board utility. Much the same as the primary classification it is separated into two gatherings, higher and lower asset the executives subject to the kind of asset oversaw by the middleware. The higher asset, likewise alluded to as database middleware, oversees programming related assets, for example, exchange handling and database access as these assets are identified with the database while lower asset middleware supervi sor, otherwise called asset middleware, oversees equipment related assets like CPU, hard drive space and memory (Puder, Ro?mer and Pilhofer, 2006). At the hour of production its fundamental point was to set up new measures of tending to the issue of contrasts that happen because of heterogeneous systems. It likewise accommodated lattice unmistakable attributes like record sharing, processor and extra framework functionalities, for example, API (application programming interfaces) with an essential concern pointed in asset

The Pros and Cons of Allowing Cell Phones in School

The Pros and Cons of Allowing Cell Phones in School One of the more questionable and most talked about issues that school directors face consistently is the place they remain with understudies and phones. It appears that practically every school takes an alternate position on the issue of cell phonesâ in school. Regardless of what your school’s arrangement is, it is highly unlikely to totally shield all understudies from bringing their telephones except if you do understudy look through consistently, which is essentially not plausible. Chairmen must assess the upsides and downsides of permitting phones in schools and settle on a choice dependent on their own understudy populace. The truth of the matter is that pretty much every family unit claims various cell phones.â The time of understudies who own a PDA has continuously been slanting downward.â It has gotten progressively regular for understudies as youthful as five to have a PDA. This age of understudies are advanced locals and subsequently specialists with regards to innovation. A large portion of them can content with their eyes shut. They are regularly definitely more adroit than most grown-ups at utilizing their PDAs for some reasons. Should Cell Phones Be Banned or Embraced in Schools? There are basically three center positions most school locale have taken with their mobile phone approaches. One such approach fundamentally bans their understudies from having their mobile phones by any means. In the event that understudies are gotten with their mobile phones, at that point they can be appropriated or fined. Now and again, the understudy might be suspended. Another normal mobile phone arrangement permits understudies to bring their PDAs to class. Understudies are permitted to utilize them during non-instructional occasions, for example, time in the middle of classes and lunch. In the event that understudies are gotten with them in class, at that point they are appropriated from the understudy. Another wireless approach is inclining towards a move in overseers thinking. Understudies are not just permitted to have and utilize their PDAs, however theyre likewise urged to utilize them in class as learning tools.â Teachers consolidate the utilization of mobile phones n ormally into their exercises for purposes, for example, inquire about. Areas that prohibit their understudies from having their phones or breaking point their utilization do this for an assortment of reasons. Those incorporate not needing it to make it simple for understudies to cheat, being worried about the possibility that that understudies are sending unseemly substance, messing around, or in any event, setting up sedate arrangements. Instructors likewise feel like they are diverting and insolent. These are substantial concerns and are the reason this is such a hot issue among school heads. The development towards grasping the utilization of mobile phones by understudies starts with instructing understudies on appropriate utilization of telephones at school. Managers who are moving towards this arrangement frequently state that they are taking on a tough conflict with a strategy that has a total or incomplete restriction on phone ownership and use. Executives who have changed to this sort of arrangement state that their activity has gotten a lot simpler and that they have far less issues of wireless maltreatment than they did under different strategies. This sort of approach likewise makes room for educators to hold onto phones as an instructional apparatus. Instructors who have chosen for use mobile phones in their every day exercises state that their understudies are effectively connected with and more mindful than they ordinarily are. A PDA can be an amazing instructive device. Cell phones can give understudies such a great amount of data in a moment that educators can't deny that they can be amazing assets that improve learning in the study hall. Numerous educators are utilizing them for an assortment of purposes, for example, little gathering ventures with inquire about races or content rivalries for right answers. The site polleverywhere.com permits instructors to offer a conversation starter to their students.â The understudies then content their responses to a specific number that the educator gives them. The site gathers the information and places it into a diagram, where educators can extend their answers on a savvy board and talk about the appropriate response decisions with the class. The consequences of these exercises have been certain. Educators, directors, and understudies have all given positive input. Numerous educators and understudies would contend that the time has come to move into the 21st century and start utilizing the assets we have accessible to draw in our understudies in the learning procedure all the more promptly.

Friday, August 21, 2020

Need for an International Information Security-Free-Samples

Question: Examine about the requirement for an International Information Security Standard for Small Medium Enterprises. Answer: The requirement for an International Information Security Standard for Small Medium Enterprises The data security norms help SME to keep their instructive resources made sure about. It causes the association to oversee security and protection of advantages like the money related data, subtleties of representative, licensed innovation and other secret information. Into the little medium endeavor (SME), there is reception of data security gauges which is advantageous factor to encourage development, competiveness just as advancement (Janulevicius et al. 2017). The data security guidelines alleviate the data security dangers which turns into a risk to protection. The clients are increasingly concerned in regards to the treatment of information to the business just as trust of the clients. Skolmen and Gerber (2015) talked about that data security system is such a progression of recorded procedures which are utilized to characterize arrangements just as methods around usage of data security controls. This specific structure is outline to fabricate the program for data security for o verseeing of dangers just as decrease of vulnerabilities. Panjwani, Jantti and Sormunen (2016) contended that the security structures are utilized to settle the issues identified with data security to meet with tweaked necessities of the SME. Drivers to seek after data security and protection gauges Luhach, Dwivedi and Jha (2014) expressed that selection of data security gauges show that the association is being dedicated to actualize security components to ensure the information. Usage, support just as authorization of the inward strategies all through utilization of guidelines are powerful mean to show responsibility with the hierarchical guidelines. Saa et al. (2017) examined the drivers to seek after of data security just as protection principles. SME endures of serious effects on the data frameworks just as systems that can prompt negative business impacts. Scharnick, Gerber and Futcher (2016) contended that selection of the data security norms is powerful intends to moderate the dangers. Among the web clients, the dangers are raised into the online exchanges, for example, doubt of the individual information notwithstanding security of the online installments. The clients are worried at the hour of treatment of information to the business. The client trust is an applicable choice components which give bit of leeway to the SME. If there should arise an occurrence of SME, there is have to communicate consistence with the data security just as prerequisites of protection. Inability to follow the business necessities give a negative effect just as long haul outcomes into the matter of SME. Da Xu, He and Li (2014) examined that the data security guidelines offer huge upper hand to the SME by improving over the items just as administrations the association offers. When SME embraces of data security norms, at that point the clients establish to the upper hand when manages the corporate customers from private just as private area. Hindrances to embrace SME of data security standard Terzi, Terzi and Sagiroglu (2015) showed the hindrances to appropriation of SME of data security principles which are created just as distributed by the universal norms improvement association. The SME utilizes the EU level to distinguish which of the measures are appropriate for the association to make sure about data and information. The vast majority of the SME know about the ISO/IEC27000 arrangement. SME is looking of challenges with ID of norms which meet with the business needs. Heikkila et al. (2016) told that SME stores, forms and transmits the cardholder just as close to home information which don't know about the particular commitments. The data security alongside protection dangers are changed into applicable issues into the association that expect of consideration from side of the board. Into the current monetary condition, SME is required to be centered around endeavors to remain serious into center activities, venture into dynamic business climate. Luhach, Dwivedi and J ha (2014) expressed that accomplishment of development, advancement through utilization of new advances notwithstanding corporate administration is the top needs of the European SME. SME is required to accomplish development with the constrained assets that are required to assign by assessing severe time just as spending plan. SME is depended on the ICT framework for supporting the business forms, business size which legitimizes work of committed people for the ICT capacities. SME chooses to disguise ICT administrations for redistributing them. If there should arise an occurrence of re-appropriating of the ICT administrations, there is absence of inward information into the data security with suppliers of the client security highlights. Al-Ghofaili and Al-Mashari (2014) contended that constrained access to the abilities of data security establishes to the vulnerabilities for SME. Da Xu, He and Li (2014) characterized that for selection of data security norms, it is required to assign data security jobs to specific representatives. The security jobs are expected to deal with the principles, and it is past HR of SME. Usage of data measures is tedious where restricted staffs are helped with sending and support of the consistence. SME know about the potential effects of the disturbed business benefits because of the specialized episodes and how hazard the board shields from the dangers just as vulnerabilities pertinent to the data resources (Skolmen and Gerber 2015). Reception of data security standard is a key critical instrument to create organized methodology for relief of dangers, hazard condition association is required to receive of best principles. Terzi, Terzi and Sagiroglu (2015) reasoned that system of hazard the executives just as usage rules to the little associations can empower just as help them. The continuous issue for the associations are that it isn't sufficient direction dependent on the particular controls they execute to agreeable with the individual information insurance laws. Da Xu, He and Li (2014) presumed that there are hindrances to the data security guidelines are identified with the usage perspectives. It is hard for the non-mechanical SME to understand. There is likewise a worry t hat that the language utilized incorporates of complex for the SME at the beginning periods of the reception procedure (Panjwani, Jantti and Sormunen 2016). SME are likewise unconscious of adaptability that the data security norms give dependent on usage just as checking of controls. Suggestions to expand level of selection of data security measures This investigation additionally proposed suggestions to encourage selection procedure of the data security norms by the independent companies. The suggestions is given dependent on five spaces, for example, increment into information just as commitment, give instrument to cultivate the standard selection by the SME all through administrative consistence, encouraging of guidelines usage and encouraging participation with the partners to improve data security normalization for SME. The SMEs are prescribed to utilization of ISO/IEC 27000 measures which is well known standard gives prerequisites to SME data security the executives framework. It is methodical methodology for overseeing touchy companys data with the end goal that it will remain made sure about. ISO 27000 data security standard was being created by global standard association. It is furnished with structure which is applied to different kinds notwithstanding size of associations. Because of appropriation of ISO/IEC 27000 no rm, SME takes care of their security related issues and forestalls to raise any security related issues. This specific system incorporates of physical just as specialized controls which are included into the authoritative hazard the executives forms. References Al-Ghofaili, A.A. what's more, Al-Mashari, M.A., 2014, August. ERP framework selection customary ERP frameworks versus cloud-based ERP frameworks. InInnovative Computing Technology (INTECH), 2014 Fourth International Conference on(pp. 135-139). IEEE. Da Xu, L., He, W. what's more, Li, S., 2014. Web of things in ventures: A survey.IEEE Transactions on modern informatics,10(4), pp.2233-2243. Heikkil, M., Rtty, A., Piesk, S. what's more, Jms, J., 2016, June. Security challenges in little and medium-sized assembling ventures. InSmall-scale Intelligent Manufacturing Systems (SIMS), International Symposium on(pp. 25-30). IEEE. Janulevi?ius, J., Marozas, L., ?enys, A., Goranin, N. what's more, Ramanauskait?, S., 2017, April. Venture engineering displaying dependent on distributed computing security philosophy as a source of perspective model. InElectrical, Electronic and Information Sciences (eStream), 2017 Open Conference of(pp. 1-6). IEEE. Luhach, A.K., Dwivedi, S.K. what's more, Jha, C.K., 2014, December. Applying SOA to an E-business framework and structuring a sensible security system for little and medium estimated E-trade dependent on SOA. InComputational Intelligence and Computing Research (ICCIC), 2014 IEEE International Conference on(pp. 1-6). IEEE. Panjwani, M., Jntti, M. also, Sormunen, J., 2016, September. IT Service Management from a Perspective of Small and Medium Sized Companies. InQuality of Information and Communications Technology (QUATIC), 2016 tenth International Conference on the(pp. 210-215). IEEE. Saa, P., Moscoso-Zea, O., Costales, A.C. also, Lujn-Mora, S., 2017, June. Information security issues in cloud-based Software-as-a-Service ERP. InInformation Systems and Technologies (CISTI), 2017 twelfth Iberian Conference on(pp. 1-7). IEEE. Scharnick, N., Gerber, M. what's more, Futcher, L., 2016, August. Survey of information stockpiling assurance approaches for POPI consistence. InInformation Security for

Thursday, August 13, 2020

Can a Person With PTSD Have Other Disorders

Can a Person With PTSD Have Other Disorders PTSD Related Conditions Print How PTSD May Lead to Anxiety Disorders By Matthew Tull, PhD twitter Matthew Tull, PhD is a professor of psychology at the University of Toledo, specializing in post-traumatic stress disorder. Learn about our editorial policy Matthew Tull, PhD Medically reviewed by Medically reviewed by Steven Gans, MD on August 05, 2016 Steven Gans, MD is board-certified in psychiatry and is an active supervisor, teacher, and mentor at Massachusetts General Hospital. Learn about our Medical Review Board Steven Gans, MD Updated on February 12, 2020 Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Overview Symptoms & Diagnosis Causes & Risk Factors Treatment Living With In Children Jed Share/Kaoru Share / Getty Images Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) are two disorders that can occur at the same time.?? This is not entirely surprising given that PTSD is a trauma- and stressor-related disorder which can manifest in different ways from one person to the next. As such, PTSD (a disorder caused by exposure to death, serious injury, sexual violence, or threats) can lead to other disorders that each have their own set of unique causes, characteristics, and symptoms. In addition to GAD, other co-occurring disorders can include pain disorder (PD), social anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and specific phobia. Understanding Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) goes well beyond the normal worrying and fretting that most people experience. It is defined as the excessive worry about subjects or events that persist at least six months. The anxiety is something the person can’t seem to control with the object of worry often switching from one thing to the next. The worrying ultimately takes up a lot of a person’s day with little relief and to the point where relationships and work are affected. A person is diagnosed with GAD in the presence of at least three of the following physical or cognitive symptoms:?? Edginess or restlessnessFatigue or tiring easilyImpaired concentration or feeling as if one’s mind suddenly goes blankIrritability, either internalized or externalizedIncreased muscle tensionDifficulty sleeping or unsatisfying sleep In order to confirm a diagnosis, the symptoms cannot be explained by any other causes or conditions including prescription medications, alcohol use, illicit drug use, neurological problems, or another medical condition. An Overview of Generalized Anxiety Disorder The Relationship Between PTSD and GAD Research suggests that roughly one in six people with PTSD experience GAD at some stage in their condition. It further suggests that the rate of GAD in people with PTSD is as much as six times higher than that found in the general population. While the reasons for their coexistence are not entirely clear, we do know that worry is a common feature of PTSD.?? Because emotional responses are typically hyper-aroused in people with PTSD, worries can also be extended and exaggerated to the point where they can no longer be controlled. In some individuals, worry may even be used as a coping mechanism. It is not unusual to hear people with PSTD say that worrying about other events or troubles distracts them from the things that are more upsetting to them. Worry can provide them distance from the thoughts and feelings they are unable to face. Another possible explanation is that PTSD and GAD have similar origins. While trauma is the innate cause of PTSD, it can also be the trigger that leads to GAD. Other Disorders That Co-Exist With PTSD In the same way that GAD can coexist with PTSD, other anxiety disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorders?? share similar origins and overlapping symptoms. Among them: Panic disorder (PD) is experienced in around seven percent of people with PTSD. It is characterized by frequent and unexpected panic attacks and ongoing concerns about future attacks. PD occurs in people with PTSD at a rate four times greater than that of the general population.Social anxiety disorder occurs in 28 percent of people with PTSD and is defined by the intense fear and avoidance of social situations. Having PTSD may be the natural consequence of the disorder as both are characterized by feelings of isolation and “not fitting in.”Specific phobia occurs in 31 percent of people with PTSD and is typified by the fear of specific objects (such as spiders, blood, or dogs) or situations (elevators, bridges, heights). People with PTSD are seven times more likely to have specific phobia as the general public.Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been less studied in relation to PTSD, but research suggests that up to 47 percent of people with PTSD may have OCD.?? OCD is charact erized by excessive obsessive and/or intrusive thoughts as well as repetitive behaviors or thoughts (compulsions). The 7 Best Online Anxiety Support Groups

Sunday, June 21, 2020


PHOTOSTABILIZATION OF PYRETHRINS (Thesis Proposal Sample) Content: STUDIES ON PHOTO STABILIZATION OF NATURAL PYRETHRUM EXTRACTS USING CLAY NANOPARTICLES FOR DEVELOPMENT OF AN ENVIRONMENTAL FRIENDLY PESTICIDE MAINA ESTHER WAMAITHA A Research Proposal Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Chemistry of Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology 2014 DECLARATION This research proposal is my original work and has not been presented for a degree in any other university. Maina Esther Wamaitha (SC 331-2710/2013) Signatureà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ Dateà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ This research proposal has been submitted for examination with our approval as university supervisors. Dr. Harrison Wanyika Chemistry Department, JKUAT, Kenya Signatureà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ Dateà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ Prof. Anthony Gachanja Chemistry Department, JKUAT, Kenya Signatureà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ Dateà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ TABLE OF CONTENTS TOC \o "1-3" \h \z \u DECLARATION PAGEREF _Toc390862198 \h i TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGEREF _Toc390862199 \h ii LIST OF FIGURES PAGEREF _Toc390862200 \h v ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS PAGEREF _Toc390862201 \h vii ABSTRACT PAGEREF _Toc390862205 \h viii 1.0 INTRODUCTION AND LITERATURE REVIEW PAGEREF _Toc390862206 \h 1 1.1Background PAGEREF _Toc390862207 \h 1 1.2 Pyrethrum Extracts PAGEREF _Toc390862208 \h 2 1.3 Clay PAGEREF _Toc390862209 \h 5 1.3.1 Organo Clays Synthesis PAGEREF _Toc390862210 \h 6 1.4 Adsorption Isotherms PAGEREF _Toc390862211 \h 9 1.4.1 Langmuir Kinetic Model PAGEREF _Toc390862212 \h 10 1.4.2 Freundlich Adsorption Kinetic Model PAGEREF _Toc390862213 \h 11 1.4.3 Temkin Adsorption Isotherm PAGEREF _Toc390862214 \h 11 1.5 Sorption Kinetics PAGEREF _Toc390862216 \h 12 1.5.1 Pseudo-first Order Equation PAGEREF _Toc390862217 \h 12 1.5.2 Pseudo-second Order Equation PAGEREF _Toc390862218 \h 13 1.6 Thermodynamics of Adsorption PAGEREF _Toc390862219 \h 13 1.7 Pesticide Formulation PAGEREF _Toc390862220 \h 14 1.7.1 Surfactants PAGEREF _Toc390862221 \h 15 1.7.2 Wetting Agents PAGEREF _Toc390862223 \h 15 1.7.3 Penetrants PAGEREF _Toc390862225 \h 15 1.7.4 Thickeners PAGEREF _Toc390862226 \h 15 1.7.5 Emulsifiers Agent PAGEREF _Toc390862227 \h 16 1.7.6 Spreaders and Stickers PAGEREF _Toc390862229 \h 16 1.8 Analytical Techniques PAGEREF _Toc390862230 \h 16 1.8.1 Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (F.T.I.R) PAGEREF _Toc390862231 \h 16 1.8.2 Column Bed Technique PAGEREF _Toc390862232 \h 17 1.8.3 High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) PAGEREF _Toc390862233 \h 17 1.8.4 UV-Visible Spectroscopy PAGEREF _Toc390862234 \h 18 1.8.5 X-ray Diffractometer PAGEREF _Toc390862235 \h 18 1.9 Statement of the Problem PAGEREF _Toc390862236 \h 19 1.10 Justification PAGEREF _Toc390862237 \h 19 1.11 Hypothesis PAGEREF _Toc390862238 \h 19 1.12 Objectives PAGEREF _Toc390862239 \h 20 1.12.1 Overall Objective PAGEREF _Toc390862240 \h 20 1.12.2 Specific Objectives PAGEREF _Toc390862241 \h 20 2.0 MATERIALS AND METHODS PAGEREF _Toc390862242 \h 21 2.1 Materials and Reagents PAGEREF _Toc390862243 \h 21 2.2 Sampling and Sample Collection PAGEREF _Toc390862244 \h 21 2.3 Clay Purification Process PAGEREF _Toc390862245 \h 22 2.4 Isolation of Nano Clays PAGEREF _Toc390862246 \h 23 2.5 Characterization of Nano Clay PAGEREF _Toc390862247 \h 23 2.5.1 Characterization Using F.T.I.R PAGEREF _Toc390862248 \h 23 2.5.2 Characterization Using XRD PAGEREF _Toc390862249 \h 24 2.6 Clay Modification PAGEREF _Toc390862250 \h 24 2.7 Characterization of Organo Clay PAGEREF _Toc390862251 \h 25 2.7.1 Characterization Using F.T.I.R PAGEREF _Toc390862252 \h 25 2.7.2 Characterization Using XRD PAGEREF _Toc390862253 \h 25 2.8 Adsorption- desorption Experiment PAGEREF _Toc390862254 \h 26 2.8.1 Effect of Temperature PAGEREF _Toc390862255 \h 26 2.8.2 Effect of Time PAGEREF _Toc390862256 \h 27 2.8.3 Effect of pH PAGEREF _Toc390862257 \h 27 2.8.4 Desorption PAGEREF _Toc390862258 \h 28 2.9 Kinetic Adsorption PAGEREF _Toc390862259 \h 28 2.10 Intercalation of Pyrethrum Extracts into Clay Gallery Spaces PAGEREF _Toc390862260 \h 29 2.10.1 Simple Immersion Technique PAGEREF _Toc390862261 \h 29 2.10.2 Column Bed Technique PAGEREF _Toc390862262 \h 30 2.10.3 Rotor Evaporator Technique PAGEREF _Toc390862263 \h 30 2.11 Characterization of Pyrethrum Extracts Loaded Nano Clay/Modified Nano clay PAGEREF _Toc390862264 \h 30 2.12 Accelerated Stability Tests PAGEREF _Toc390862265 \h 31 2.13 Quantification of Pyrethrum Extracts PAGEREF _Toc390862266 \h 31 2.14 Pesticide Formulation PAGEREF _Toc390862267 \h 32 2.15 Bioassay Tests PAGEREF _Toc390862268 \h 32 2.15.1 Tomato Growing, Insect Source and Rearing PAGEREF _Toc390862269 \h 32 2.15.2 Laboratory Bioassay on Tomato Plant PAGEREF _Toc390862270 \h 33 2.15.3 Field Bioassay in the Green House PAGEREF _Toc390862271 \h 34 2.15.4 Bioassay on Stored Maize Grain PAGEREF _Toc390862272 \h 35 2.16 Statistical Analysis PAGEREF _Toc390862273 \h 36 2.17 Facilities PAGEREF _Toc390862274 \h 36 WORK PLAN PAGEREF _Toc390862275 \h 37 BUDGET PAGEREF _Toc390862276 \h 38 REFERENCES PAGEREF _Toc390862277 \h 39 LIST OF FIGURES TOC \h \z \c "Figure" Figure 1.1: Pyrethrins I PAGEREF _Toc390850403 \h 3 Figure1.2: Pyrethrins II PAGEREF _Toc390850404 \h 3 Figure1.3: Cinerin I PAGEREF _Toc390850405 \h 3 Figure1.4: Cinerin II PAGEREF _Toc390850406 \h 4 Figure1.5: Jasmolin I PAGEREF _Toc390850407 \h 4 Figure1.6: Jasmolin II PAGEREF _Toc390850408 \h 4 Figure1.7: Structure of dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide PAGEREF _Toc390850409 \h 8 Figure1.8: Map of Kenya showing sampling sites PAGEREF _Toc390850410 \h 21 ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS CEC Cation Exchange Capacity ceq Pyrethrum extracts concentration at equilibrium (mg/L) Co Initial pyrethrum extract concentration EtOH Ethanol F.T.I.R Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy HCl Hydrochloric acid H2O Water HPLC High Performance Liquid Chromatography JKUAT Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology MMT Montmorillonite NaOH Sodium hydroxide Qe Uptake capacity Qmax Langmuir maximum uptake capacity (mg/g) Qt Uptake capacity at time t (s) rpm revolutions per minute UV Ultraviolet light ABSTRACT Pyrethrum extracts are natural organic insecticides composed of six natural chemicals: pyrethrins I II, Jasmolin I II, Cinerin I II extracted from pyrethrum flowers Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium and Chrysanthemum cineum. Pyrethrum extracts have better insecticidal properties, are biodegradable and have low toxicity to humans and birds. They degrade on exposure to UV light and are thus limited to indoor application. This study aims to photo-stabilize the pyrethrum extracts using clay and then formulate an efficacious and environmental-friendly pyrethrum-extracts clay pesticide. Clay samples will be collected from J.K.U.A.T farm, Juja, air dried and stored in polyethylene bags. It will then be purified through grinding, sieving and reacting with hydrogen peroxide, followed by isolation of nanoclay through sedimentation and centrifugation processes and later will be characterized using F.T.I.R. and XRD techniques. Functionalization process using organic cations will follow. The adso rption influencing factors such as pH, time and temperature will be optimized through adsorption study and experimental data will be fitted into the adsorption isotherms. Rotary evaporation and column bed techniques will be used to intercalate pyrethrum extracts into the montmorillonite clay and accelerated stability tests will follow using artificial UV lamp at 254nm and 366nm. The photo stabilized pyrethrum-extracts based pesticide will be formulated by addition of adjuvants and bioassay tests will be carried out on stored cereals and tomato plants to confirm the enhanced efficacy. The anticipated outcome is a photo stabilized pyrethrum-extracts clay product for the stored maize grains and horticultural crops. Establishment of an effective and eco-friendly pesticide will be a major positive step to the agricultural sector due to utilization of natural resource, resulting to food security, reduced environmental pollution, raised income levels for pyrethrum farmers and consequently this would result in boosting Kenyaà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s economy. 1.0 INTRODUCTION AND LITERATURE REVIEW 1.1Background Synthetic pesticides use in the world agricultural sector has resulted to severe environmental pollution. Moreover, due to the processes like pesticide degradation, these results to only small percentage reaching the target site (Carrizosa et al., 2003). The risk of these chemicals is that they ultimately find their way into the human food via drinking water through leaching giving a need for extensive research. For instance, pyrethroid synthetic pesticide was developed for outdoor use in agriculture, forestry, termite control and it is t...